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年产3.0万吨二甲醚装置分离精馏工段的设计

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年产3.0万吨二甲醚装置分离精馏工段的设计(论文15000字)
摘  要
近年来,二甲醚已成为国际石油替代途径与新型二次能源的热点课题,引起各国关注与重视。
二甲醚的制备主要有甲醇脱水法和合成气一步法两种。与传统的甲醇合成二甲醚相比,一步法合成二甲醚工艺经济更加合理,在市场更具有竞争力,正在走向工业化。目前,制取二甲醚的最新技术是从合成气直接制取,相比较甲醇脱水制二甲醚而言,一步法合成二甲醚因为体系存在有未反应完的合成气以及二氧化碳,要得到纯度较高的二甲醚,分离过程比较复杂。开发中的分离工艺主要采用吸收和精馏等化工单元操作过程得到纯度较高的二甲醚产品。本设计主要针对分离中的精馏工序进行工艺设计,分离二甲醚、甲醇和水三元体系。精馏塔采用浮阀塔,塔顶冷凝装置采用全凝器,用来准确控制回流比;塔底采用水蒸气蒸汽加热,以提供足够的热量。通过计算得出理论板数,塔效率,实际板数,进料位置,在板式塔主要工艺尺寸的设计计算中得出塔径,有效塔高,筛孔数。通过筛板的流体力学验算,证明各指标数据均符合标准。以保证精馏过程的顺利进行并使效率尽可能的提高。
关键词:二甲醚 分离 三元体系 精馏

Annual output of 30,000 tons of dimethyl ether distillation section in the design of separation device
ABSTRACT
In recent years, DME has become an alternative channel of international oil and new secondary energy and hot topics, That aroused national concern and attention.
Preparation of dimethyl ether mainly methanol dehydration and One-step synthesis. With the traditional methanol synthesis compared to synthesis of dimethyl ether, one-step synthesis of dimethyl ether process more rational economy, more competitive in the market and it is moving towards industrialization. Currently, synthesis gas to dimethyl ether is the latest technology Preparation of dimethyl ether. Compared with methanol dehydration, system of direct synthesis of DME as the existence of unreacted synthesis gas and carbon dioxide finished. If it want to get high purity dimethyl ether, more complicated separation process. Developed mainly in the separation process such as chemical absorption and distillation unit operation in the process of dimethyl ether with higher purity product. This design aimed at separating the distillation process for process design, separation of dimethyl ether, methanol and water ternary system. Design of distillation towers used valve. Use the whole top of the tower condenser cooling device used to accurately control the reflux ratio. Bottom of the column of steam heating by steam to provide sufficient heat. Obtained by calculating the number of theoretical plates, tower efficiency, the actual plate number, feed location. The main tower in the plate design and calculation of process dimensions derived column diameter, the effective tower, sieve number. Checking through the sieve of fluid mechanics, to prove that the indicator data are in line with standards to ensure the smooth progress of distillation process and to improve efficiency as much as possible
Keywords: DME  separate  ternary system  distillation

目  录
摘要    I
ABSTRACT    II
1  绪论    1
1.1概述    1
1.1.1设计依据    1
1.1.2 设计规模及设计要求    1
1.1.3 产品规格、性质及用途    1
1.1.4技术来源    3
1.2二甲醚分离装置流程    6
2 精馏塔的工艺计算    8
2.1精馏塔的物料衡算    8
2.1.1基础数据    8
2.1.2物料衡算    8
2.2精馏塔工艺计算    10
2.2.1物料衡算    10
2.2.2操作条件的确定    10
2.3精馏塔设备计算    12
2.3.1基础数据    12
2.3.2塔板数的确定    15
2.3.3精馏塔主要尺寸计算    18
2.3.4塔板结构设计    21
2.3.5 塔板流体力学验算    26
2.3.6 塔板负荷性能图    29
2.3.7塔高的计算    33
3 热量衡算    35
3.1数据    35
3.2冷凝器的热负荷    35
3.3再沸器的热负荷    36
3.4冷却水消耗量和加热蒸汽消耗量    38
4主要设备设计和选型    39
4.1接管的设计    39
4.1.1进料管    39
4.1.2回流管    39
4.1.3釜液出口管    39
4.1.4塔顶蒸汽管    40
4.1.5加热蒸汽管    40
4.2冷凝器的选型    41
5 结论    42
参考文献    43
附录    44
谢辞    46

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