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出生错误的损害赔偿问题研究

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出生错误的损害赔偿问题研究(论文12000字)
Research on the compensation for the wrong birth
摘   要
随着现代科学技术的进步与发展,人们在思想意识方面也有了进一步的提升。为了培育良性后代,优生优育的理念已经深入人心。与此相应,由医务人员的过失致使“错误出生”问题就被人们格外关注。大多数胎儿的父母都会选择在孕期到医院做反复的检查,更有甚者会同时选择几家医院进行检查,通过依靠医院方的不断检查来避免胎儿出生时带有缺陷;其目的就是为了确保胎儿的正常发育和健康出生。然而近些年来,因为医院方未能及时告知胎儿父母胎儿异常,从而生出畸形婴儿的纠纷和诉讼数量明显增多。由于医院方的过失未能发现或未尽到及时合理告知义务导致孕妇生出有缺陷的婴儿,给婴儿父母乃至整个家庭带来巨大的精神痛苦和巨额医疗费用,因此类损害由婴儿父母向法院起诉的案例即为“错误出生”的损害赔偿案例。现今针对此类案件我国并没有明确的法律规定,全国各地针对此类案件的判决也都不同。
本文从“错误出生”的定义出发比较研究各国和地区关于“错误出生”的法律规定和司法实践,主张我国侵权法应当引入“错误出生”的概念,确认“错误出生”的损害赔偿责任。从侵权法的角度来研究“错误出生”侵权损害赔偿的合理性。

关键词: “错误出生”  损害赔偿责任  过失  

Research on the compensation for the wrong birth
ABSTRACT
With the progress and development of modern science and technology, people have further promotion in ideology. In order to cultivate benign offspring, the concept of eugenics has been deeply rooted. Accordingly, the fault of the medical personnel causes the problem of "wrong birth" to be paid attention to. Most fetal parents will choose to go to the hospital during pregnancy to do repeated tests, but also choose several hospitals to check, by relying on the hospital side of the continuous inspection to avoid birth defects, the purpose is to ensure fetal normal development and healthy birth. In recent years, however, the number of disputes and lawsuits involving malformed infants has increased markedly because the hospital has failed to inform fetal parents of fetal abnormalities in time. Because the negligence of the hospital side fails to discover or do not fulfil the obligation of timely and reasonable informing the pregnant woman to produce the defective baby, causes great mental anguish and huge medical expenses to the infant parents and even the whole family, so the case that the class damages is sued by the infant parents to the court is the "wrong birth" case of damages. There are no clear legal provisions for such cases in our country, and the judgments against such cases are different throughout the country.
Based on the definition of "false birth", this paper studies the legal provisions and judicial practice of "false birth" in various countries and regions, and advocates that the concept of "false birth" should be introduced into the tort law of China, and the liability of "wrongful birth" should be confirmed.From the angle of tort law, this paper studies the rationality of "false birth" tort damages.
Key Words:     Wrong birth  Damages liability  fault

出生错误的损害赔偿问题研究
目    录
绪论    2
1“错误出生””的概述    3
1.1 “错误出生”的定义    3
1.2“错误出生”、“错误怀孕”、“错误生命”的区别    3
1.2.1 “错误出生”与“错误怀孕”的辨析    3
1.2.2 “错误出生”与“错误生命”的辨析    4
2 各国和地区关于“错误出生”的法律规定和司法实践    4
2.1 英美法系国家    4
2.1.1 美国    4
2.2 大陆法系国家    6
2.2.1 德国    6
2.2.2 我国台湾地区    6
2.3 中国    6
2.3.1 “错误出生”的赔偿诉讼案件    6
2.3.2 “血友病遗传基因诊断”纠纷案件    8
2.3.3 我国对”错误出生”的态度    9
3 “错误出生”损害赔偿的界定和范围    9
3.1 “错误出生”损害赔偿的界定    9
3.2 “错误出生”的损害赔偿范围    10
3.2.1 财产损害    10
3.2.2 精神损害    12
4 对我国完善相关法律、法规的建议    13
参考文献    16

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