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受贿罪中“利用职务上的便利”的认定(硕士)

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受贿罪中“利用职务上的便利”的认定(硕士)(论文30000字)
摘要: 我国在反腐败力度上的不断加强,尽管取得了可观的反腐效果,但是随着罪犯们越来越高端的犯罪手段,犯罪方式也日趋复杂,所以在通过职位犯罪上的判定标准也呈现出分歧,特别是涉及通过职位便利受贿犯罪的判定上,该主要因素揭示了权钱交易的根本特征,假如受贿人索要或收取钱物的时并无涉及到其职位相关的影响力,那么就不算收受贿赂,必须要正确理解“通过职务上的便利”这一要件的含义,然后再判定当事人究竟有没有形成犯受贿事实。在1979年时刑法就已经把通过职位优势归入了受贿犯罪的范畴,然而在关于该关键点的探讨却仍没结束,其中包含的理论研究有的促使了立法的推进,但是有的还没有结论。
本研究采用了提出—分析—解决问题的研究方法进行分析,通过职位优势这一判定要素,从立法和司法角度对多次其进行相关的定义,1997年时刑法把该要素认定成受贿犯罪的判定标准,要想实际运用在司法事物中,还需要结合“两高”在 1999 年和 2003年两年里对该要素的意义进行更为官方的定义解释。笔者基于国内外的立法案例及相关研究成果的整理,归纳出国内理论研究和实际应用中对通过职位优势这一判定上的分歧,该要素究竟是不是受贿犯罪的组成关键、定义有没有涉及应用他人职位带来的影响力、有没有涉及使用其离职前或者将来就职后所能够产生相应影响力、有没有涉及通过劳务上的优势,但是出项这些的分歧的同时却还是认同该要素的重要判定意义的。笔者基于对该要素的多方面考察分析,结合理论研究和实例分析,理清争论的各要点,从而获知该通过职位优势是犯受贿罪判定的先决条件,从其内涵来看,这没有涵盖运用他人职位影响力,把运用他人职位影响定义为:通过职位的优势条件的这种类比阐释,远不是普通民众所能简单了解和估测的;对于通过离职前或者未来就职后的职位优势的情况,当事人相对职位来说已经不是在职人员了,同样未来的就职也表明了还不是在职人员,所以无法把上述通过这两种职位优势条件的做法列入通过职位优势条件的范畴;另外,劳务是没有职位管理特性的劳动方式,实际判定上,当事人的行为看起来拥有劳务的一些特性,然而事实上依然是属于公务,所以不能依据行为人主要判定因素去作为定罪标准,必须基于当事人的做法有没有含有公务的全面确定,所以通过职位优势是不涉及利用劳务相关利益的。
综上所述,本研究把运用职位作用是在受贿罪中解释为运用行为人当前的职位条件,同时职位的范畴须向外扩展,如此我国刑法宗旨才能得到贯彻。

关键词:受贿罪  职务  利用职务上的便利

Determination of “Taking Advantage of One‘s Position”in Bribery
Abstract: In our anti-corruption efforts continue to strengthen, despite a great deal of anti-corruption effect, but as criminals are increasingly high-end criminal means, of crime are becoming increasingly complex, so by determining standard positions on crime also showing differences, particularly to the crime of bribery to facilitate decision adopted positions which reveals the fundamental characteristics of the typical elements of trading power for money, when people ask if bribery or collecting money and goods not related to their job-related influence, then there Operators accept bribes must be properly understood "by facilitating his position," the elements of meaning and then determining whether the parties have committed bribery facts not formed. In 1979 the Criminal Code has been put into position by the scope of the advantages of the crime of bribery, however, discuss about the key points are still not completed, the theoretical views contained therein also prompted the advance of legislation, while some have not yet concluded .
In this study, the proposed - Analysis - problem-solving methods to analyze the advantages of this position is determined by elements from the legislative and judicial point of view of its many related definitions, the 1997 Penal Code to identify the elements of the crime of bribery criteria, to the practical application of judicial things, also requires a combination of "two high" significance of the elements in 1999 and 2003, two years more in the official interpretation of the definition. It sort of legislation based on the case at home and abroad and relevant research results, summarized theoretical study and practical application of national positions advantage of this by determining the differences between the elements of what is not composed of key bribery crime, there is no definition of the application relates others job bring influence there before his departure involving the use of the future or be able to produce all relevant after the inauguration of influence, there is no advantage relates to labor on, all the differences are still up the essence of the identity of the important factors determining significance. The author based on many elements of the investigation and analysis, combining theoretical research and case studies, to clarify the points of contention, and thereby learns the position advantage by bribes determination prerequisite from its connotation of view, it does not cover the use of others positions influence the position effect is defined as the use of others: this analogy posts superiority interpretation, far from the general public can understand and simple estimation; for by or before leaving office after the inauguration of the advantages of the future situation parties relative position is not the incumbents, the same future inauguration also shows that is not the incumbents, it is not included in the above-mentioned advantages for posts by these two positions by category of advantages for the practice; in addition, labor is no job management features work the way, the actual determination, the conduct of the parties appears to have some of the characteristics of labor, but in fact still are official, it is not the main determining factor in human behavior on the basis of a conviction to the standard must be based on the practice of the parties have It does not contain a comprehensive determination of official duties, so homogeneous Continental posts do not involve the use of labor-related interests.
In summary, the present study the influence of the use of posts is explained in bribes for the use of actors influence the current position, while the scope of the job to be extended outward, so the purpose of the criminal law to get implemented.

Key words: Bribery ;Position; Taking Advantage of One’s Positio
 
目   录
摘要:    I
Abstract:    II
引    言    1
一、    受贿罪“利用职务上的便利”的研究现状和存在的争议    3
(一)通过职位优势犯受贿罪的研究    3
1. 国内相关立法和研究的概述    3
2. 域外立法及发展    4
(二)争论之处    5
二、通过职位优势的定义和争论的划分    8
(一)“通过职位优势的定义    8
1.通过的意义    8
2.职位的定义    9
3.便利的定义    10
(二)剖析争论的焦点    10
1.通过职位优势是受贿犯罪构成的前提    10
2.“运用职位的影响没有涵括他人职位的影响    11
3.通过职位影响不含运用未来就职的影响    12
4.通过职位的影响不含离职前的职位影响    12
5.通过职位优势不含通过劳务上优势    13
三、 受贿罪中“利用职务上的便利”的认定方法    14
(一) 认定条件    14
(二)在实践中的具体表现形式    21
1. 利用本人直接职权    22
2. 运用职位上的从属、约束关系    23
3. 利用居于监管地位对被监管对象的约束力    25
4. 滥用职务上的权力    25
四、结    论    26
参考文献    27
致    谢    31

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